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What Is Hypothyroidism?

By ChemistsWorld On 17 Jun 2021

Over 12% of people worldwide will have thyroid problems at least once in their life. One kind of thyroid problem is hypothyroidism or low thyroid. For every 4000 newborns, there is one with hypothyroidism to have lower levels of thyroid hormone secretion. Women are the most affected by thyroid diseases, but anyone can have hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone is essential to almost control growth for every part, and any deficiency of it will cause many health issues. Though hypothyroidism is treatable with simple medicines, leaving it without it could cause severe heart disease issues to mental disorders. Check out the many types, symptoms, causes, complications, and hypothyroidism treatments to be hale and healthy.

Hypothyroidism Types

The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland covering the front of the windpipe receives signals from the brain’s pituitary gland to secrete thyroid hormone. When it secretes less, it is hypothyroidism, and more it is hyperthyroidism. There are a few types of hypothyroidism that include.

• Primary hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not produce hormones when signaled by the pituitary gland by releasing TSH or thyroid-stimulating hormone.
• Secondary hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not receive the pituitary gland’s signal to secrete the hormone.
• Tertiary hypothyroidism is because of the problem with the hypothalamus.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

Placing the fingers on the sides of Adam’s apple and swallowing makes it easy to feel the thyroid gland sliding under the fingers. Also, the symptoms of hypothyroidism are easy to find out in the following ways.

• Feeling unrest and tired even after a good sleep and always ready to take a nap.
• Having irregular periods and excessive menstrual bleeding in women because of the reduced thyroid hormone
• Adding weight because of the slowing down of the metabolism rate
• Feeling cold than average and want the place to be hot than others
• Pain in the muscle and joints as hypothyroidism switches metabolism to catabolism to break down body tissues like muscle for making energy
• Unexpected hair loss by becoming patchy or coarser because of hair follicles stopping regenerating
• Changes on the skin to have itchy, flaky, or dry skin with no allergies or other issues
• Increasing depression and decreasing satisfaction with sex life
• Having trouble to concentrate and remember with various levels of mental fogginess
• Having constipation as the colon activity reduces because of the low thyroid levels

Hypothyroidism Causes

The most common causes of hypothyroidism are the genes and can get from family. The next most common cause is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an immune disorder caused by viral infection to produce antibodies that attack the thyroid gland. The other causes include.

• Less consumption of iodine in the food
• Use of certain medications like amiodarone, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha, and others
• Radiation therapy on the neck or radioactive iodine treatment
• Thyroid surgery to remove part of the thyroid gland
• The pregnancy causes the abnormal secretion of thyroid hormone for unknown reasons

Hypothyroidism Complications

If hypothyroidism is untreated even after severe symptoms, it leads to the following complications and more.

• Increase heart problems because of rising the LDL or bad cholesterol
• Cause obesity because of lower metabolism rate to convert food to energy
• Cause Goiter or abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland to have swelling on the neck and trouble swallowing
• Increase balance problems which may put older people at risk of falling down
• Cause joint pains and aches along with tendonitis
• Cause infertility by reducing the egg formation
• Bring in mental health issues like memory loss, depression, concentration lapses, decreasing interest in activities, and more.

Hypothyroidism Treatments

There are readily available inexpensive medications like levothyroxine that secretes synthetic thyroid hormone to treat hypothyroidism.

Having a proper diet, exercising, and the right lifestyle will even postpone hypothyroidism for people with thyroid problem genes. Also, it is essential to see the doctor immediately on seeing its symptoms for taking treatment to be safe and healthy.

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