WHAT ARE KIDNEY STONES
Kidney stone is also known as urolithiasis, is a hard crystalline material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. At some point of life, one in every 20 people develops kidney stones. It is more frequently seen in those people with Crohn's disease.
RISK FACTORS LEADING TO KIDNEY STONES
- Dehydration from low fluid intake is the major cause of stone formation
- High urine calcium levels in blood
- High dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, and refined sugars
- Obesity, certain foods
- Some medications, calcium supplements,
- Some medical conditions like high BP, UTI infections, hyperparathyroidism, and gout .
KIDNEY STONE SYMPTOMS
- Flank pain, which can be quite severe
- Severe pain in back, belly or groin
- Frequent or painful urination
Kidney stones are rare to diagnose. It includes CT scan, x-rays, ultrasound, and urinalysis. Blood tests can also be done to check high levels of minerals involved in forming stones.
HOME CARE FOR KIDNEY STONE
If the kidney stone is small, that it can pass out of the body on its own, then your doctor may recommend you to take enough water and fluids to keep urine clear and may prescribe pain medicine along with it. About, 8-10 glasses of water on daily basis. If the kidney stone is small it will pass on its own. If it is less than 5 mm, there are 90% chances that it will pass out without further interventions. If the stone is between 5 mm and 10 mm, there are 50% chances. If the stone is too large to pass on its own, then there are some treatment options for its removal.
WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS OF KIDNEY STONE
Infection due to an obstructing stone is another emergent condition. When urine does not get drained, then the abscess/sepsis can spread the infection throughout the body. Fever is a major sign of the kidney stone, but urinalysis may show an infection and then the urologist may consider placing a stent, nephrostomy tube, or removing the stone to relieve the obstruction.
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR KIDNEY STONE
- In the ED, intravenous fluids may be administered to combat with hydration along with the administration of medications to control pain and nausea. Ketorolac (Toradol) an injectable anti-inflammatory drug may be used to decrease the pain, with the goal being to relieve suffering. Nausea and/or vomiting can be treated with antiemetic medications like Ondansetron (Zofran) and Phenergan.
- The decision to send a patient home will depend upon the response to medication. If the pain is hard to control or if vomiting persists, then admission to the hospital may be necessary.
- Pain control at home follows the lead of the hospital treatment. Over-the-counter (OTC) ibuprofen (Advil), as an anti-inflammatory medication, and narcotic pain killers may be provided. Tamsulosin (Flomax), a drug used to help urination in men with an enlarged prostate gland) may be used to help the stone pass from the ureter into the bladder.
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